National

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Content relating to the history of civil and defender legal aid in National.

Persons & oral histories

Click on persons to see oral histories and more.

John Arango -- Directed New Mexico Legal Aid. Chaired NM Civil Legal Services Commission. Longtime consultant on legal aid to ABA, NLADA and numerous state/local organizations. Started with OEO Legal Services. ATJ Commission Board/Staff and OEO Legal Services staff
Jonathan Asher -- Longtime Executive Director of Colorado Legal Services who was on many ABA committees and also special counsel to LSC President Helaine Barnett. ABA Leader, LSC Board/Staff, NLADA Board/Staff, Reggie, and SCLAID Board/Staff
Hulett “Bucky” Askew -- Senior positions with OEO Legal Services, LSC, NLADA. Later on LSC Board for nine years. ABA Leader, LSC Board/Staff, NLADA Board/Staff, and OEO Legal Services staff
Clinton Bamberger -- First Director of the Legal Services Program (LSP) within OEO). Then Executive VP of LSC. Was also President of NLADA. In Memoriam, LSC Board/Staff, NLADA Board/Staff, and OEO Legal Services staff
Helaine M. Barnett -- President of LSC for six years. Previously spent 37 years with Legal Aid Society in NYC and headed its civil division. Later a leader in legal aid in NY state. ABA Leader, ATJ Commission Board/Staff, and LSC Board/Staff
LaVeeda Battle -- Leading African American attorney in Alabama who chaired the board of Legal Services of Alabama, and chaired a key committee of the LSC board at a crucial time in its history. LSC Board/Staff and Reggie
H. Michael (Mickey) Bennett -- Worked with CRLA during Reagan years. Chief lobbyist for LSC creation act. Later first director of the Fair Political Practices Commission established in the wake of Watergate.
Martha Bergmark -- Founder and/or leader with LSC, NLADA, Mississippi Center for Justice, and Voices for Civil Justice. LSC Board/Staff, NLADA Board/Staff, and Reggie
Brooksley Born -- Chaired U.S. CFTC. Co-founder of National Women’s Law Center. SCLAID member. Chaired ABA’s Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary. ABA Leader and SCLAID Board/Staff
Edwin Burnette -- Senior positions with Cook County public defender office. Vice President of Defender Legal Services at NLADA. NLADA Board/Staff
Edgar Cahn -- Seminal figure who with his wife Jean Camper Cahn authored landmark 1964 article for the Yale Law Journal proposing national system of legal services to the poor. He founded Antioch School of Law and Time Bank. In Memoriam and OEO Legal Services staff
Kelly Carmody -- Worked in numerous state and national organizations supporting civil legal aid and related issues, including KY, TN, DC, and AZ. Arizona-based consultant who improved recruitment and retention of civil legal aid staff. ATJ Commission Board/Staff
Julie Clark -- VP for Strategic Alliances at NLADA and secretary to the Board of Directors. NLADA Board/Staff
Hillary Rodham Clinton -- LSC Board chair 1978-1981. Arkansas Law School in Fayettesville. Previously taught criminal law and managed legal aid clinic at University of Arkansas. Submitted funding for what became Ozark Legal Services. LSC Board/Staff
Howard Dana -- LSC board member. Served on Maine Supreme Court 1993-2007. Championed legal services for the poor. ABA Leader, ATJ Commission Board/Staff, Judge, and LSC Board/Staff
Charles Dorsey, Jr. -- Directed Legal Aid Bureau of Maryland. Chair of Project Advisory Group. Member of SCLAID. SCLAID Board/Staff
Douglas Eakeley -- LSC board chair. Board member of NYC Legal Aid Society. Trustee of the Community Law offices in East Harlem. Board chair of Legal Services of NJ. LSC Board/Staff
Peter Edelman -- Georgetown law professor. Specializes in the fields of poverty, welfare, juvenile justice, and constitutional law. ATJ Commission Board/Staff
Charles Edson -- One of the initial staff leaders of the OEO Legal Services. One of the architects of the design and development of LSC. OEO Legal Services staff
Thomas Ehrlich -- In 1975 became the first president of the LSC, where he served for three years. Had career as law school dean, university president, and other varied posts. LSC Board/Staff
John Erlenborn -- Republican Congressman from Illinois involved in OEO Legal Services and Legal Services Act. Later LSC board member then interim LSC president. In Memoriam, LSC Board/Staff, and Member of Congress
Alexander Forger -- Private practice partner at Harrison Tweed’s firm. Chaired NYC Legal Aid Society. President of LSC. Early leader against HIV discrimination. LSC Board/Staff
Henry Freedman -- Directed National Center for Law and Economic Justice in New York City for more than four decades. NLADA Board/Staff and Reggie
Leonard Garment -- Law partner of President Nixon, whom he served in White House, where Garment championed Legal Services Act through enactment. In Memoriam
Will Hornsby -- Staff counsel in the ABA Division for Legal Services for 30 years. SCLAID Board/Staff
Alan Houseman -- Senior staff member at LSC, headed its research institute, and oversaw its support centers. Key lobbyist and draftsman in efforts to enact the LSC Act. LSC Board/Staff, NLADA Board/Staff, and Reggie
Earl Johnson, Jr. -- Senior positions with OEO Legal Services and Neighborhood Legal Services Project in DC. Later on California Court of Appeal. ATJ Commission Board/Staff, Judge, LSC Board/Staff, OEO Legal Services staff, and SCLAID Board/Staff
Abe Krash -- Assisted Abe Fortas in researching the issues and writing the brief for Gideon v. Wainwright. Taught law and had private practice.
Terry Lenzner -- Directed OEO Legal Services in the Nixon administration. Authored and personally served the first cong’l subpoena of a sitting U.S. President. Later private investigator. In Memoriam and OEO Legal Services staff
Anthony Lewis -- Journalist, twice winner of the Pulitzer Prize and a longtime NY Times columnist. Authored book “Gideon’s Trumpet”. In Memoriam
Clinton Lyons -- Deputy director of LSC Atlanta regional office. Various positions with LSC including Acting President. Ex. Dir of NLADA for 22 yrs. LSC Board/Staff, NLADA Board/Staff, and Reggie
Bill McCalpin -- President of NLADA. Chaired LSC. Led ABA committees. Board member of Legal Aid Society of St. Louis. Private practice. ABA Leader, In Memoriam, LSC Board/Staff, NLADA Board/Staff, OEO Legal Services staff, and SCLAID Board/Staff
Lloyd Meeds -- Democratic Congressman from Everett, Washington and prime sponsor of LSC bill that passed Congress in 1974. Previously prosecutor, and pro bono defense atty. Member of Congress
Will Ogburn -- Longtime executive director of the National Consumer Law Center (NCLC) in Boston. Guided the organization through loss of LSC funding and in fostering and organizing the consumer law practitioner community.
Jose Padilla -- Had 35 year legal career with California Rural Legal Assistance (CRLA) advocating for the rights of California’s farm worker and rural poverty communities. Served on boards of the Poverty & Race Research Action Council and NLADA. NLADA Board/Staff
Patricia Pap -- First full-time Executive Director of Management Information Exchange (MIE) starting in 1997. Previously Executive Director of Legal Services for Cape Cod and Islands, and attorney for Legal Services of Eastern Michigan.
Linda Perle -- Directed legal services at the Center for Legal and Policy Studies. Previously with Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law and LSC. LSC Board/Staff
Ronald Pollack -- As director of Families USA for 34 years, played key role laying the groundwork for the Affordable Care Act, defending it after passage, and getting people enrolled. Started the Food Research and Action Center (FRAC) and focused much of his career on reducing hunger among the poor.
Steve Scudder -- Counsel to the ABA’s Standing Committee on Pro Bono and Public Service. Previously directed New Hampshire Pro Bono Program. SCLAID Board/Staff
Ada Shen-Jaffe -- Directed Columbia Legal Services and Evergreen Legal Services, both statewide civil legal aid programs in Washington State. Also on ABA’s SCLAID. ATJ Commission Board/Staff and SCLAID Board/Staff
Jerome Shestack -- Helped create the OEO Legal Services program and LSC. President of ABA. President of the International League for Human Rights. ABA Leader, In Memoriam, and SCLAID Board/Staff
Antone “Gerry” Singsen -- Executive VP of LSC. Previously legal aid lawyer in New York City. Later active in Massachusetts including the Harvard Law School program on the legal profession. In Memoriam, LSC Board/Staff, and Reggie
Thomas Smegal -- Patent attorney appointed to LSC Board by both Presidents Reagan and Clinton. Previously on board of Legal Aid Society in San Francisco. LSC Board/Staff
Chesterfield Smith -- Former president of the ABA during creation of the LSC, about which he dealt with President Nixon. Smith previously served on the ABA Committee on the Availability of Legal Services. Committed to civil legal aid. ABA Leader and In Memoriam
Henry Sommer -- President of the National Consumer Bankruptcy Rights Center. Played key public interest role on bankruptcy legislation in Congress. Previously with Community Legal Services in Phila.
Betty Torres -- Director of the Texas Access to Justice Foundation, the largest Texas-based funder for legal services to the poor. President of Natl. Assoc. of IOLTA Programs. ATJ Commission Board/Staff and NLADA Board/Staff
Michael B. “Mike” Trister -- Directed North Mississippi Rural Legal Services. VP and General Counsel of Children’s Defense Fund. Strategist and advocate to preserve LSC from Reagan-era cuts. In Memoriam
John Tull -- VP for programs at LSC. Previously director of Southern Arizona Legal Aid. Expert on delivery of legal services to low income people. ATJ Commission Board/Staff, LSC Board/Staff, and Reggie
Patricia Wald -- Chief Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. Previously with Neighborhood Legal Services Program and Center for Law and Social Policy. In Memoriam and Judge
Roger K. Warren -- Directed Legal Services of Northern California. State trial judge in Sacramento. President of National Center for State Courts (NSSC). Judge and Reggie
Richard Zorza -- Former public defender, legal services attorney, and justice technology designer. Leading crusader for the cause of self represented litigants in US. In Memoriam

Cases: Federal

Selected key federal cases originating in National.

Cases: State

Selected key state cases originating in National (future content; suggestions welcome).


Organization histories

Histories of National state and local legal aid organizations (submissions welcome).

SCLAID 100th anniversary history highlights (Report) -- Attractive color 12-page PDF with selected accomplishments and milestones.

Other publications

Other publications relating to National.

Alternative Dispute Resolution: Overview (Report) -- Five-page overview of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in the US by recognized expert mediator/arbitrator.
US national report to ILAG on Civil Legal Aid: 2001 (Report) -- Biennial national report on recent developments. Written by an American for the International Legal Aid Group (ILAG) conference. (17-page PDF).
US national report to ILAG on Civil Legal Aid: 2003 (Report) -- Biennial national report on recent developments. Written by an American for the International Legal Aid Group (ILAG) conference. (31-page PDF).
US national report to ILAG on Civil Legal Aid: 2005 (Report) -- Biennial national report on recent developments. Written by LSC President for the International Legal Aid Group (ILAG) conference. (14-page PDF).
US national report to ILAG on Civil Legal Aid: 2007 (Report) -- Biennial national report on recent developments. Written by an American for the International Legal Aid Group (ILAG) conference. (31-page PDF).
US national report to ILAG on Civil Legal Aid: 2009 (Report) -- Biennial national report on recent developments. Written by an American for the International Legal Aid Group (ILAG) conference. (46-page PDF).
US national report to ILAG on Civil Legal Aid: 2011 (Report) -- Biennial national report on recent developments. Written by an American for the International Legal Aid Group (ILAG) conference. (48-page PDF).
US national report to ILAG on Civil Legal Aid: 2013 (Report) -- Biennial national report on recent developments. Written by an American for the International Legal Aid Group (ILAG) conference. (41-page PDF).
US national report to ILAG on Civil Legal Aid: 2015 (Report) -- Biennial national report on recent developments. Written by an American for the International Legal Aid Group (ILAG) conference. Covers June 2013-Dec 2015 (58-page PDF).
US national report to ILAG on Civil Legal Aid: 2017 (Report) -- Biennial national report on recent developments. Written by an American for the International Legal Aid Group (ILAG) conference. Covers July 2015-Dec 2017 (103-page PDF).
US national report to ILAG on Civil Legal Aid: 2019 (Report) -- Biennial national report on recent developments. Written by an American for the International Legal Aid Group (ILAG) conference. Covers July 2017-Dec 2019 (101-page PDF).
US national report to ILAG on Civil Legal Aid: 2021 (Report) -- Biennial national report on recent developments. Written by an American for the International Legal Aid Group (ILAG) conference. Covers May 2019-Dec 2021 (70-page PDF).